MLOps for Natural Language Processing (NLP)

Haneen Mansoor 19 Apr, 2023
7 min read


The artificial intelligence of Natural Language Processing (NLP) is concerned with how computers and people communicate in everyday language. In light of the deployment of NLP models in production systems, we need to streamline the rising use of NLP applications leading to MLOps (Machine Learning Operations) for NLP being helpful. Automating the creation, training, testing, and deployment of NLP models in production systems is the goal of MLOps for NLP.

This article will examine the MLOps process for NLP models using Sentiment Analysis as a use case and some of the most recent trends and developments in this field.

MLOps for Natural Language Processing (NLP)

Learning Objectives

  1. Knowing and putting into practice the essential MLOps for NLP activities. This includes data preparation, model creation, deployment, monitoring, maintenance, continuous integration and deployment and collaboration, and communication.
  2. Knowledge of the difficulties and factors associated with MLOps for NLP, such as data security and privacy, model explainability, and ethical issues.
  3. Understanding the most recent developments in MLOps for NLP, including deep learning and transfer learning and using NLP in new fields like finance and healthcare.

This article was published as a part of the Data Science Blogathon.

Table of Contents

Key Steps Involved in MLOps for NLP

In this section, we will look at how to implement the key steps involved in MLOps for NLP with the help of Sentimental Analysis.

Data Preparation

The first step in building an NLP model is data preparation. In this use case, I use the IMDb movie review dataset of 50,000 movie reviews labeled as positive or negative. We will split the dataset into training and testing sets using an 80:20 ratio.

You can find this dataset on kaggle.

import pandas as pd from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split

# loading dataset
df = pd.read_csv('imdb_reviews.csv')

# splitting dataset into training and testing sets


The next step is pre-processing the data. This involves transforming the raw text data into a format that an NLP model can easily process. In this use case, we will use the TF-IDF (Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency) technique to transform the text data into numerical vectors.

from sklearn.feature_extraction.text import TfidfVectorizer

# initializing vectorizer
vectorizer = TfidfVectorizer()

# preprocessing training data
X_train = vectorizer.fit_transform(train_reviews)

# preprocessing testing data
X_test = vectorizer.transform(test_reviews)

# converting labels to numerical values
y_train = train_labels.replace({'positive': 1, 'negative': 0})
y_test = test_labels.replace({'positive': 1, 'negative': 0})

Model Development

The next step is model development. In this use case, we will use a simple DL model consisting of an Embedding layer, a GlobalMaxPooling1D layer, and a Dense layer with a sigmoid activation function.

from keras.models import Sequential
from keras.layers import Embedding, GlobalMaxPooling1D, Dense

# defining model architecture
model = Sequential()
model.add(Embedding(input_dim=X_train.shape[1], output_dim=32))
model.add(Dense(units=1, activation='sigmoid'))

# compiling model
model.compile(optimizer='adam', loss='binary_crossentropy', metrics=['accuracy'])

Model Training and Evaluation

The next step is model training and evaluation. We will train the model using the training data and evaluate its performance using the testing data.

Using the fit() method of the Keras model object to train the model. We will also use the ModelCheckpoint callback to save the best model weights based on the validation loss. This ensures that we always have access to the best-performing model during training.

from keras.callbacks import ModelCheckpoint
from sklearn.metrics import accuracy_score, precision_score, recall_score, f1_score

# defining callback to save best model weights
checkpoint = ModelCheckpoint('model.h5', monitor='val_loss', save_best_only=True)

# training model
history =, y_train, 
                    validation_data=(X_test, y_test), callbacks=[checkpoint])

Once the model is trained, we can evaluate its performance using various metrics such as accuracy and precision.

# evaluating model performance
y_pred = model.predict(X_test)
y_pred = (y_pred > 0.5).astype(int)
acc = accuracy_score(y_test, y_pred)
prec = precision_score(y_test, y_pred)
rec = recall_score(y_test, y_pred)
f1 = f1_score(y_test, y_pred)

print('Accuracy:', acc)
print('Precision:', prec)

Model Deployment

The final step is model deployment. We can deploy a model in a production environment for real-time inference by training and evaluating it. In this use case, I will deploy the model using Flask, a web application framework for Python.

from flask import Flask, request, jsonify
import numpy as np
import tensorflow as tf
from keras.models import load_model

# initializing Flask app
app = Flask(__name__)

# loading trained model
model = load_model('model.h5')

# initializing vectorizer
vectorizer = TfidfVectorizer()

@app.route('/predict', methods=['POST'])
def predict():
    # get input text from request
    input_text = request.json['text']

    # preprocess input text
    input_vector = vectorizer.transform([input_text])

    # make prediction
    prediction = model.predict(input_vector)[0][0]
    if prediction > 0.5:
        sentiment = 'positive'
        sentiment = 'negative'

    # returning prediction as JSON response
    response = {
        'prediction': sentiment
    return jsonify(response)

We define an endpoint that accepts a JSON payload containing the input text. The input text is pre-processed using the same vectorizer that was used during training, and the model makes a prediction. The predicted sentiment is returned as a JSON response.

Challenges Involved in MLOps for NLP

Here are some challenges and considerations involved in MLOps for Natural Language Processing:

  1. Data Privacy and Security: NLP models frequently call for a significant amount of sensitive data, such as private customer data or proprietary business information. It is essential to protect the confidentiality and security of this data. The best methods for protecting data and guaranteeing compliance with data protection laws like the GDPR or CCPA include implementing data encryption, access limits, and anonymization techniques.
  2. Model Explicability: Because NLP models can be intricate and tricky to interpret, it might be difficult to comprehend how they generate predictions. For stakeholders to develop a sense of trust and understanding, models must be comprehensible. In order to shed light on how models create predictions, best practices call for using tools like LIME, SHAP, etc.
  3. Ethical Considerations: NLP models may be biased or discriminatory in the data or the model, which could have serious ethical ramifications. It is crucial to consider the models’ ethical implications and ensure they don’t reinforce or magnify pre-existing biases or stereotypes. The best practices involve checking the data for bias, evaluating the model using fairness criteria, and including various stakeholders in the development and deployment phases.
  4. Model Version Control: Maintaining version control and ensuring that models are replicable requires keeping track of changes to the model and data. The best practices call for managing changes to code and data using version control technologies like Git and GitHub.
  5. Scalability and Performance: NLP models can be resource-intensive and expensive to compute. For models to be used in production contexts, they must be both scalable and performant. The best approaches include improving the model design, utilizing cloud-based infrastructure to assure scalability, and using distributed computing frameworks like Apache Spark.
  6. Ongoing Learning: NLP is a field that is always changing, and new methods and strategies are always being created. Success in MLOps for NLP depends on ensuring that teams stay updated with the newest research and methodologies. Investing in team members’ ongoing education and professional growth and attendance at trade shows and conferences are examples of best practices.
MLOps for Natural Language Processing (NLP)

Some of the latest trends and advancements in MLOps for NLP are:

  1. Deep Learning and Transfer Learning: Deep Learning has become a potent NLP technique. It enables models to learn from enormous volumes of data and achieve cutting-edge performance on various NLP tasks. With the ability to fine-tune pre-trained models like BERT, GPT-2, and RoBERTa on certain tasks, transfer learning—particularly in NLP—has proven to be effective in lowering the quantity of labeled data required to train new models.
  2. Multi-Task Learning: Multi-task learning, which involves training models simultaneously on several related tasks, has proved successful in NLP. It enables models to learn from various data sources and enhances performance on various related tasks. Examples of multiple language tasks that can be used to train models include translation, summarization, and sentiment analysis.
  3. Domain-Specific Models: Domain-specific models are required to comprehend the language and terminology used in new domains where NLP is being applied, such as healthcare and finance. For instance, training models on financial information or electronic health records to glean insights and deliver useful insights.
  4. AutoML: Model selection, hyperparameter tuning, and architecture design are increasingly being automated in NLP using autoML tools. This helps save time and money while still producing high-performing models.
  5. Explainable AI: Building NLP models that are explicable and capable of revealing information about their decision-making processes is of developing interest in the field of explainable AI. Using Explainability methods like LIME and SHAP and attention mechanisms will help provide light on how models produce predictions.
  6. Edge Computing: As IoT and smart device adoption rises, there is an increasing demand for NLP models that can operate on edge devices without relying on cloud-based infrastructure. Reducing the size and complexity of models by methods like quantization and pruning to make them more suited for deployment on edge devices.

Creating new methods and strategies on a regular basis will help in a rapidly developing discipline of MLOps for NLP. For continued competitiveness and the creation of high-performing NLP models, staying current with trends and developments is essential.

MLOps for Natural Language Processing (NLP)


As shown above, MLOps for NLP is a crucial technique for programmers to create NLP apps. Automating the entire process of creating, training, testing, and deploying NLP models is possible. This enables developers to create NLP models that are more precise, dependable, and trustworthy.

The key takeaways from this article on MLOps for NLP are:

  1. MLOps is essential for creating, implementing, and keeping track of NLP models at scale.
  2. When developing NLP models, we need to keep in mind the ethical considerations, data privacy and security, and model explainability. The use of encryption, access controls, and anonymization techniques to safeguard data, ensure that models are understandable, and include a variety of stakeholders in the development process are all examples of best practices.
  3. Popular methods for developing NLP models include deep learning, transfer learning, multi-task learning, explainable AI, domain-specific models, and AutoML.
  4. Staying current with the newest trends and developments in MLOps for NLP requires continual study and professional development. Industry gatherings and conferences can offer beneficial chances for education and networking.

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Haneen Mansoor 19 Apr, 2023

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