Abhishek Jaiswal — January 13, 2022
Beginner NLP Python

This article was published as a part of the Data Science Blogathon.

 

NLP Tutorials
                                                                                             Source: OpenSource

Hey Folks!

I have decided to write a series of articles explaining all the basic to the advanced concepts of NLP using python. So if you want to learn NLP by reading it and coding, this will be a perfect series of articles for you.

Target Audience:

Anyone new or zero in NLP can start with us and follow this series of articles.

Prerequisite: Python Basic Understanding

Libraries Used: Keras, Tensorflow, Scikit learn, NLTK, Glove, etc.

We will cover the below topics: 

1. Raw data processing (Data cleaning)
2. Tokenization and StopWords
3. Feature Extraction techniques
4. Topic Modelling and LDA
5.Word2Vec (word embedding)
6. Continuous Bag-of-words(CBOW)
7. Global Vectors for Word Representation (GloVe)
8. text Generation,
9. Transfer Learning

All of the topics will be explained using codes of python and popular deep learning and machine learning frameworks, such as sci-kit learn, Keras, and TensorFlow.

What is NLP?

Natural Language Processing is a part of computer science that allows computers to understand language naturally, as a person does. This means the laptop will comprehend sentiments, speech, answer questions, text summarization, etc. We will not be much talking about its history and evolution. If you are interested, prefer this link.

Step1 Data Cleaning

The raw text data comes directly after the various sources are not cleaned. We apply multiple steps to make data clean. Un-cleaned text data contains useless information that deviates results, so it’s always the first step to clean the data. Some standard preprocessing techniques should be applied to make data cleaner. Cleaned data also prevent models from overfitting.

In this article, we will see the following topics under text processing and exploratory data analysis.

I am converting the raw text data into a pandas data frame and performing various data cleaning techniques.

import pandas as pd 
text = [‘This is the NLP TASKS ARTICLE written by ABhishek Jaiswal** ‘,’IN this article I”ll be explaining various DATA-CLEANING techniques’,
 ‘So stay tuned for FURther More &&’,'Nah I don"t think he goes to usf, he lives around']
df = pd.DataFrame({'text':text})

Output:

Data Cleaning | NLP Tutorials
                                                                                  Source: Local

Lowercasing

The method lower()converts all uppercase characters into lowercase and returns.

Applying lower() method using lambda function

df['lower'] = df['text'].apply(lambda x: " ".join(x.lower()  for x in x.split()))
Lowercasing | NLP Tutorials
                                                                                           Source: Local

Punctuation Removal 

Removing punctuation(*,&,%#@#()) is a crucial step since punctuation doesn’t add any extra information or value to our data. Hence, removing punctuation reduces the data size; therefore, it improves computational efficiency.

This step can be done using the Regex or Replace method.

Punctuation Removal
                                                                                                 Source: Local

string.punctuation returns a string containing all punctuations.

Punctuation | NLP Tutorials
                                                                                               Source: Local

Removing punctuation using regular expressions:

Removing punctuation
                                                                                                 Source: Local

Stop Words Removal

Words that frequently occur in sentences and carry no significant meaning in sentences. These are not important for prediction, so we remove stopwords to reduce data size and prevent overfitting. Note: Before filtering stopwords, make sure you lowercase the data since our stopwords are lowercase.

Using the NLTK library, we can filter out our Stopwords from the dataset.

# !pip install nltk
import nltk 
nltk.download('stopwords') 
from nltk.corpus import stopwords
allstopwords = stopwords.words('english')
df.lower.apply(lambda x: " ".join(i for i in x.split() if i not in allstopwords))
Stop words Removal
                                                                                          Source: Local

Spelling Correction

Most of the text data extracted in customer reviews, blogs, or tweets have some chances of spelling mistakes.

Correcting spelling mistakes improves model accuracy.

There are various libraries to fix spelling mistakes, but the most convenient method is to use a text blob.

The method correct() works on text blob objects and corrects the spelling mistakes.

#Install textblob library 
!pip install textblob 
from textblob import TextBlob
Spelling Correction
                                                                        Source: Local

Tokenization

Tokenization means splitting text into meaningful unit words. There are sentence tokenizers as well as word tokenizers.

Sentence tokenizer splits a paragraph into meaningful sentences, while word tokenizer splits a sentence into unit meaningful words. Many libraries can perform tokenization like SpaCy, NLTK, and TextBlob.

Splitting a sentence on space to get individual unit words can be understood as tokenization.

import nltk
mystring = "My favorite animal is cat" 
nltk.word_tokenize(mystring)
mystring.split(" ")

output:

[‘My’, ‘favorite’, ‘animal’, ‘is’, ‘cat’]

Stemming

Stemming is converting words into their root word using some set of rules irrespective of meaning. I.e.,

  • “fish,” “fishes,” and “fishing” are stemmed into “fish”.
  • “playing”, “played”,” plays” are stemmed into “play”.
  • Stemming helps to reduce the vocabulary hence improving the accuracy.

The simplest way to perform stemming is to use NLTK or a TextBlob library.

NLTK provides various stemming techniques, i.e. Snowball, PorterStemmer; different technique follows different sets of rules to convert words into their root word.

import nltk
from nltk.stem import PorterStemmer
st = PorterStemmer()
df['text'].apply(lambda x:" ".join([st.stem(word) for word in x.split()]))
Stemming
Source: local

“article” is stemmed into “articl“, “lives“ — -> “live“.

Lemmatization

Lemmatization is converting words into their root word using vocabulary mapping. Lemmatization is done with the help of part of speech and its meaning; hence it doesn’t generate meaningless root words. But lemmatization is slower than stemming.

  • good,” “better,” or “best” is lemmatized into “good“.
  • Lemmatization will convert all synonyms into a single root word. i.e. “automobile“, “car“,” truck“,” vehicles” are lemmatized into “automobile”.
  • Lemmatization usually gets better results.

Ie. leafs Stemmed to. leaves stemmed to leav while leafs , leaves lemmatized to leaf

Lemmatization can be done using NLTK, TextBlob library.

Lemmatisation
                                                                                                 Source: local

Lemmatize the whole dataset.

Lemmatisation 2 | NLP Tutorials
                                                                                                   Source: local

Step 2 Exploratory Data Analysis

So far, we have seen the various text preprocessing techniques that must be done after getting the raw data. After cleaning our data, we now can perform exploratory data analysis and explore and understand the text data.

Word Frequency in Data

Counting the unique words in our data gives an idea about our data’s most frequent, least frequent terms. Often we drop the least frequent comments to make our model training more generalized.

nltk provides Freq_dist class to calculate word frequency, and it takes a bag of words as input.

all_words = []
for sentence in df['processed']:
    all_words.extend(sentence.split())

all_words Contain all the words available in our dataset. We often call it vocabulary.

import nltk
nltk.Freq_dist(all_words)
Word frequency in data
                                                                                                 Source: Local

This shows the word as key and the number of occurrences in our data as value.

Word Cloud

Wordcloud is the pictorial representation of the word frequency of the dataset.WordCloud is easier to understand and gives a better idea about our textual data.

The library wordcloud Let us create a word cloud in a few lines of code.

importing libraries :

from wordcloud import WordCloud
from wordcloud import STOPWORDS  
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

We can draw a word cloud using text containing all the words of our data.

words = []
for message in df['processed']:
    words.extend([word for word in message.split() if word not in STOPWORDS])
        
wordcloud = WordCloud(width = 1000, height = 500).generate(" ".join(words))
plt.imshow(wordcloud, interpolation='bilinear')
plt.axis("off")
plt.show()
Word Cloud | NLP Tutorials
                                                             Source: Local
  • background_color = 'white' using this parameter, we can change the background colour of the word cloud.
  • collocations = False Keeping it as False will ignore the collocation words. Collocations are those words that are formed by those words which occur together. I.e. pay attention, home works, etc.
  • We can adjust height and width using the parameters.

Note : Before making the word cloud always remove the stopwords.

EndNotes

In this article, we saw various necessary techniques for textual data preprocessing. After data cleaning, we performed exploratory data analysis using word cloud and created a word frequency.

In the second article of this series, we will learn the following topics:

1.One Hot encoding
2.Count vectorizer
3.Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency (TF-IDF)
4.N-grams
5.Co-occurrence matrix
6.Word embedding Recipe
7.Implementing fastText

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