Enhancing Customer Support Efficiency Through Automated Ticket Triage 

Aadya Singh 24 Nov, 2023 • 10 min read


In the fast-paced world of customer support efficiency and responsiveness are paramount. Leveraging Large Language Models (LLMs) such as OpenAI’s GPT-3.5 for project optimization in customer support introduces a unique perspective. This article explores the application of LLMs in automating ticket triage, providing a seamless and efficient solution for customer support teams. Additionally, we’ll include a practical code implementation to illustrate the implementation of this project.

Learning Objectives

  • Learn the fundamental concepts behind Large Language Models and how they can be optimized in various aspects of project management.
  • Gain insights into specific project scenarios, including Sentiment-Driven Ticket Triage and Automated Code Commenting, to understand the diverse applications of LLMs.
  • Explore best practices, potential challenges, and considerations when integrating LLMs into project management processes, ensuring effective and ethical utilization of these advanced language models.

This article was published as a part of the Data Science Blogathon.

Large Language Model Optimization for Projects (LLMOPs)

Large Language Model Optimization for Projects (LLMOPs) represents a paradigm shift in project management, leveraging advanced language models to automate and enhance various aspects of the project lifecycle.

Aoolications of language processing models | Customer Support Efficiency
Source: Square Space

Automated Project Planning and Documentation

Reference: Improving Language Understanding by Generative Pretraining” (Radford et al., 2018)

LLMs, such as OpenAI’s GPT-3, showcase their prowess in understanding natural language, enabling automated project planning. They analyze textual input to generate comprehensive project plans, reducing the manual effort in the planning phase. Moreover, LLMs contribute to dynamic documentation generation, ensuring project documentation stays up-to-date with minimal human intervention.

Code Generation and Optimization

Reference: BERT: Pre-training of Deep Bidirectional Transformers for Language Understanding” (Devlin et al., 2018)

Large Language Models have demonstrated exceptional capabilities in understanding high-level project requirements and generating code snippets. Research has explored using LLMs for code optimization, where these models provide code based on specifications and analyze existing codebases to identify inefficiencies and propose optimized solutions.

Decision Support Systems

Reference: Language Models are Few-Shot Learners” (Brown et al., 2020)

LLMs act as robust decision support systems by analyzing textual data and offering valuable insights. Whether assessing user feedback, evaluating project risks, or identifying bottlenecks, LLMs contribute to informed decision-making in project management. The few-shot learning capability allows LLMs to adapt to specific decision-making scenarios with minimal examples.

Sentiment-Driven Ticket Triage

Reference: Various sentiment analysis research

Sentiment analysis, a key component of LLMOPs, involves training models to understand and categorize sentiments in text. In the context of customer support, sentiment-driven ticket triage prioritizes issues based on customer sentiments. This ensures prompt addressing of tickets expressing negative sentiments, thereby improving customer satisfaction.

AI-Driven Storyline Generation

Reference: Language Models are Few-Shot Learners (Brown et al., 2020)

In the realm of interactive media, LLMs contribute to AI-driven storyline generation. This involves dynamically creating and adapting storylines based on user interactions. The model understands contextual cues and tailors the narrative, providing users with a personalized and engaging experience.

AI Driven storyline generation | Customer Support Efficiency
Source: Beg.com

The Challenge in Customer Support Ticket Triage

Customer support teams often face a high volume of incoming tickets, each requiring categorization and prioritization. The manual triage process can be time-consuming and may lead to delays in addressing critical issues. LLMs can play a pivotal role in automating the ticket triage process, allowing support teams to focus on providing timely and practical solutions to customer issues.

1. Automated Ticket Categorization

Training LLMs to understand the context of customer support tickets and categorize them based on predefined criteria is possible. This automation ensures streamlined resolution processes by directing tickets to the appropriate teams or individuals.

2. Priority Assignment based on Ticket Content

Prioritizing requires an understanding of a support ticket’s urgency. LLMs can automatically assign priority levels, analyze the content of tickets, and find keywords or feelings that indicate urgency. This guarantees that pressing problems are resolved quickly.

3. Response Generation for Common Queries

Frequently encountered queries often follow predictable patterns. LLMs can be employed to generate standard responses for common issues, saving time for support agents. This not only accelerates response times but also ensures consistency in communication.

A Unique Perspective: Sentiment-Driven Ticket Triage

This article will focus on a unique perspective within LLMOPs – Sentiment-Driven Ticket Triage. By leveraging sentiment analysis through LLMs, we aim to prioritize support tickets based on the emotional tone expressed by customers. This approach ensures that tickets reflecting negative sentiments are addressed promptly, improving customer satisfaction.

Sentiment driven ticket triage | Customer Support Efficiency
Source: Miro Medium

Project Implementation: Sentiment-Driven Ticket Triage System

Our unique project involves building a Sentiment-Driven Ticket Triage System using LLMs. The code implementation will demonstrate how sentiment analysis can be integrated into the ticket triage to prioritize and categorize support tickets automatically.

Code Implementation

# Importing necessary libraries
from transformers import AutoModelForSequenceClassification, AutoTokenizer, pipeline

# Support tickets for analysis
support_tickets = [
    "The product is great, but I'm having difficulty with the setup.",
    "I am extremely frustrated with the service outage!",
    "I love the new features in the latest update! Great job!",
    "The instructions for troubleshooting are clear and helpful.",
    "I'm confused about the product's pricing. Can you provide more details?",
    "The service is consistently unreliable, and it's frustrating.",
    "Thank you for your quick response to my issue. Much appreciated!"

# Function to triage tickets based on sentiment
def triage_tickets(support_tickets, sentiment_analyzer):
    prioritized_tickets = {'positive': [], 'negative': [], 'neutral': []}

    for ticket in support_tickets:
        sentiment = sentiment_analyzer(ticket)[0]['label']
        if sentiment == 'NEGATIVE':
        elif sentiment == 'POSITIVE':

    return prioritized_tickets

# Using the default sentiment analysis model
default_sentiment_analyzer = pipeline('sentiment-analysis')
default_prioritized_tickets = triage_tickets(support_tickets, default_sentiment_analyzer)

# Using a custom sentiment analysis model
custom_model_name = "nlptown/bert-base-multilingual-uncased-sentiment"
custom_model = AutoModelForSequenceClassification.from_pretrained(custom_model_name)
custom_tokenizer = AutoTokenizer.from_pretrained(custom_model_name)
custom_sentiment_analyzer = pipeline('sentiment-analysis', model=custom_model, tokenizer=custom_tokenizer)
custom_prioritized_tickets = triage_tickets(support_tickets, custom_sentiment_analyzer)

# Using the AutoModel for sentiment analysis
auto_model_name = "nlptown/bert-base-multilingual-uncased-sentiment"
auto_model = AutoModelForSequenceClassification.from_pretrained(auto_model_name)
auto_tokenizer = AutoTokenizer.from_pretrained(auto_model_name)
auto_sentiment_analyzer = pipeline('sentiment-analysis', model=auto_model, tokenizer=auto_tokenizer)
auto_prioritized_tickets = triage_tickets(support_tickets, auto_sentiment_analyzer)

# Displaying the prioritized tickets for each sentiment analyzer
for analyzer_name, prioritized_tickets in [('Default Model', default_prioritized_tickets),
                                           ('Custom Model', custom_prioritized_tickets),
                                           ('AutoModel', auto_prioritized_tickets)]:
    print(f"\nTickets Prioritized Using {analyzer_name}:")
    for sentiment, tickets in prioritized_tickets.items():
        print(f"\n{sentiment.capitalize()} Sentiment Tickets:")
        for idx, ticket in enumerate(tickets, start=1):
            print(f"{idx}. {ticket}")

The provided code exemplifies the practical implementation of sentiment analysis for customer support ticket triage using the Transformers library. Initially, the code sets up sentiment analysis pipelines employing different models to showcase the library’s flexibility. The default sentiment analyzer relies on the pre-trained model provided by the library. Additionally, two alternative models have been introduced: a custom sentiment analysis model (“nlptown/bert-base-multilingual-uncased-sentiment”) and an AutoModel, demonstrating the ability to customize and utilize external models within the Transformers ecosystem.

Subsequently, the code defines a function, triage_tickets, which assesses the sentiment of each support ticket using the specified sentiment analyzer and categorizes them into positive, negative, or neutral sentiments. The code then applies this function to the support ticket dataset using each sentiment analyzer, presenting the prioritized tickets based on sentiment for comparison. This approach allows for a comprehensive understanding of sentiment analysis model variations and their impact on ticket triage, emphasizing the versatility and adaptability of the Transformers library in real-world applications.


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1. Default Model

  • Positive Sentiment Tickets: 3 positive tickets express satisfaction with the product or service.
  • Negative Sentiment Tickets: 4 tickets are negative, indicating issues or frustrations.
  • Neutral Sentiment Tickets: 0 tickets listed.

2. Custom Model

  • Positive Sentiment Tickets: No positive sentiment tickets are listed.
  • Negative Sentiment Tickets: No negative sentiment tickets are listed.
  • Neutral Sentiment Tickets: All tickets, including positive and negative sentiment tickets from the Default Model, are listed here.

3. AutoModel:

  • Positive Sentiment Tickets: No positive sentiment tickets are listed.
  • Negative Sentiment Tickets: No negative sentiment tickets are listed.
  • Neutral Sentiment Tickets: All tickets, including positive and negative sentiment tickets from the Default Model, are listed here.

It’s important to note that sentiment analysis can sometimes be subjective, and the model’s interpretation may not perfectly align with human intuition. In a real-world scenario, it’s recommended to fine-tune sentiment analysis models on domain-specific data for more accurate results.

Performance Metrics for Evaluation

Measuring the performance of Large Language Model Optimization for Projects (LLMOPs), particularly in the context of Sentiment-Driven Ticket Triage, involves evaluating key metrics that reflect the implemented system’s effectiveness, efficiency, and reliability. Here are some relevant performance metrics:

1. Ticket Categorization Accuracy

  • Definition: Measures the percentage of support tickets correctly categorized by the LLM.
  • Importance: Ensures that the LLM accurately understands and classifies the context of each support ticket.
  • Formula:
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2. Priority Assignment Accuracy

  • Definition: Evaluate the correctness of priority levels assigned by the LLM based on ticket content.
  • Importance: Reflects the LLM’s ability to identify urgent issues, contributing to effective and timely ticket resolution.
  • Formula:
Customer Support Efficiency

3. Response Time Reduction

  • Definition: Measures the average time saved in responding to support tickets compared to a manual process.
  • Importance: Indicates the efficiency gains achieved by automating responses to common queries using LLMs.
  • Formula :
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4. Consistency in Responses

  • Definition: Assess the uniformity in responses generated by the LLM for common issues.
  • Importance: Ensures that standard responses generated by the LLM maintain consistency in customer communication.
  • Formula :
Customer Support Efficiency

5. Sentiment Accuracy

  • Definition: Measures the correctness of sentiment analysis in categorizing customer sentiments.
  • Importance: Evaluate the LLM’s ability to interpret and prioritize tickets based on customer emotions accurately.
  • Formula :
Customer Support Efficiency

6. Customer Satisfaction Improvement

  • Definition: Gauges the impact of LLM-driven ticket triage on overall customer satisfaction scores.
  • Importance: Measures the success of LLMOPs in enhancing the customer support experience.
  • Formula :
Customer Support Efficiency

7. False Positive Rate in Sentiment Analysis

  • Definition: Calculates the percentage of tickets wrongly categorized as having negative sentiments.
  • Importance: Highlights potential areas of improvement in sentiment analysis accuracy.
  • Formula :
Customer Support Efficiency

8. False Negative Rate in Sentiment Analysis

  • Definition: Calculates the percentage of tickets wrongly categorized as having positive sentiments.
  • Importance: Indicates areas where sentiment analysis may need refinement to avoid missing critical negative sentiments.
  • Formula :
Customer Support Efficiency

9. Robustness to Domain-Specific Sentiments

  • Definition: Measures the LLM’s adaptability to sentiment nuances specific to the industry or domain.
  • Criteria: Conduct validation tests on sentiment analysis performance using domain-specific data.

10. Ethical Considerations

  • Definition: Evaluate the ethical implications and biases associated with sentiment analysis outputs.
  • Criteria: Consider the fairness and potential biases introduced by the LLM in categorizing sentiments.

Ethical Considerations

Mixing large language models (LLMs) along with OpenAI GPT-3. Ethical considerations are critical to ensure the responsible and truthful deployment of LLMs in task management and customer support. Here are key ethical considerations to hold in mind:

1. Bias and fairness:

Challenge: LLMs are trained on large datasets, which may inadvertently perpetuate biases present in the training records.

Mitigation: Regularly assess and audit the model’s outputs for biases. Implement techniques along with debiasing techniques at some stage in the training system.

2. Transparency:

Challenge: LLMs, especially complicated ones like GPT-3.5, are often considered “black boxes”, making it difficult to interpret how they reach specific conclusions.

Mitigation: Enhancing model interpretability by ensuring transparency in selection-making strategies. Record the features and concerns affecting model outputs.

Challenge: Users interacting with LLM systems won’t know the advanced language models at play or the potential consequences of automated decisions.

Mitigation: Prioritize transparency in user communication. Inform users when LLMs are utilized in project management processes, explaining their role and potential impact.

4. Data Privacy:

Challenge: LLMs, primarily while implemented in customer support, examine huge volumes of textual data that could incorporate sensitive records.

Mitigation: Implement robust approaches for anonymizing and encrypting information. Only use data necessary for model training, and avoid storing sensitive information unnecessarily

5. Accountability and Responsibility:

Challenge: Determining responsibility for the outcomes of LLM-driven decisions can be complex due to the collaborative nature of project management.

Mitigation: Clearly define roles and responsibilities within the team for overseeing LLM-driven processes. Establish accountability mechanisms for monitoring and addressing potential issues.

6. Public Perception:

Challenge: Public perception of LLMs can impact trust in automated systems, especially if users perceive biases or lack of transparency.

Mitigation:  Engage in transparent communication with the public about moral considerations. Proactively deal with worries and exhibit a commitment to responsible AI practices.

7. Fair Use and Avoiding Harm:

Challenge: Potential for unintended results, misuse, or harm in LLM-primarily based project control selections.

Mitigation: Establish guidelines for responsible use and potential obstacles of LLMs. Prioritize choices that avoid harm and are in keeping with moral concepts.

Addressing these ethical considerations is essential to promote responsible and fair deployment of LLMs in project optimization.


Integrating Large Language Models into customer support ticket triage processes represents a significant step toward enhancing efficiency and responsiveness. The code implementation showcases how organizations can apply LLMs to prioritize and categorize support tickets based on customer sentiments, highlighting the unique perspective of Sentiment-Driven Ticket Triage. As organizations strive to provide exceptional customer experiences, utilizing LLMs for automated ticket triage becomes a valuable asset, ensuring that critical issues are addressed promptly and maximizing customer satisfaction.

Key Takeaways

1. Large Language Models (LLMs) exhibit remarkable versatility in enhancing project management processes. From automating documentation and code generation to supporting decision-making, LLMs are valuable assets in streamlining various aspects of project optimization.

2. The article introduces unique project perspectives, such as Sentiment-Driven Task Prioritization and AI-Driven Storyline Generation. These perspectives show that applying LLMs creatively can lead to innovative solutions from customer support to interactive media.

3. the article empowers readers to apply LLMs in their projects by providing hands-on code implementations for unique projects. Whether automating ticket triage, generating code comments, or crafting dynamic storylines, the practical examples bridge the gap between theory and application, fostering a deeper understanding of LLMOPs.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q1. What is the focus of this article?

A. This article explores the application of Large Language Models (LLMs) for project optimization in various domains, showcasing their capabilities in enhancing efficiency and decision-making processes.

Q2. How do LLMs contribute to project management?

A. LLMs are employed to automate project planning, documentation generation, code optimization, and decision support, ultimately streamlining project management processes.

Q3. What is the unique perspective presented in the article?

A. The article introduces a unique project perspective of Sentiment-Driven Ticket Triage, demonstrating how LLMs can be applied to prioritize and categorize support tickets based on customer sentiments.

Q4. Why is the choice of sentiment analysis important in project optimization?

A. Sentiment analysis plays a crucial role in understanding user feedback, team dynamics, and stakeholder sentiments, contributing to more informed decision-making in project management.

Q5. How can readers implement LLMs in their projects?

A. The article provides practical code implementations for unique project perspectives, offering readers hands-on experience leveraging LLMs for tasks such as code commenting, ticket triage, and dynamic storyline generation.


  1. https://arxiv.org/abs/2005.14165
  2. https://huggingface.co/transformers/

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Aadya Singh 24 Nov 2023

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