Evaluation of GenAI Models and Search Use Case

guest_blog 23 Oct, 2023 • 8 min read

Introduction

Generative Artificial Intelligence (AI) models have revolutionized natural language processing (NLP) by producing human-like text and language structures. These models have opened doors to various applications, from chatbots to content generation, that enable more interactive and versatile interactions between humans and machines.

But how do we evaluate the effectiveness of these generative AI models for specific NLP tasks? This article will delve into the key aspects of evaluating generative AI models and understanding the complexity behind model selection and evaluation.

Evaluation of GenAI Models and Search Use Case | DataHour by Rajeswaran Viswanathan

Learning Objectives:

  • Learn to evaluate and select language models for specific use cases.
  • Gain insights into the practical aspects of deploying language models in production.
  • Delve into model improvement techniques such as prompt engineering, fine-tuning, and embedding.

Key Aspects of Generative AI Evaluation

In the rapidly evolving field of generative AI, evaluating and selecting the right model for a specific use case is a task that requires careful consideration. As we delve further into this topic, we’ll explore the intricacies of model evaluation, benchmarking, ethical concerns, model robustness, and the art of model improvement. Join me on this journey as we demystify the process and shed light on the nuances that play a pivotal role in shaping the AI landscape.

As someone who’s deeply involved in the realm of Generative AI, I’ve had the privilege of witnessing the evolution of these models over the years. The landscape of generative AI has grown immensely, with numerous new models emerging and offering diverse capabilities.

GPT-3 family | generative AI

However, when evaluating these models, it’s important to focus on a specific aspect – in this case, NLP. While generative AI has applications beyond NLP, like stable diffusion or mid-journey, for the purpose of this discussion, we’ll concentrate on evaluating language models from an NLP perspective.

The crux of model evaluation lies in defining the criteria for selection and comprehending the key factors that influence evaluation. Additionally, the benchmarks used to assess model performance play a pivotal role in understanding how well a model fares against others. So, let’s explore these dimensions.

The Complexity of Model Selection and Evaluation

Evaluating generative AI models is not a one-size-fits-all endeavor. There’s a multitude of models, each designed for specific tasks, and it’s imperative to know how to choose the right one. At its core, model evaluation revolves around a specific use case. Just as a candidate for a job evaluates a job description to match their skills, selecting a model involves assessing whether it aligns with the intended NLP task.

OpenAI, the frontrunner in generative AI, suggests a fitting model based on your use case, helping you make an informed decision. It’s not about finding the model that does everything but rather the model that excels at your intended task.

Understanding Different Types of Models: Foundation vs. Fine-Tuned

Models come in two primary classifications: foundation models and fine-tuned models. Let’s take a closer look. OpenAI provides a plethora of models; among them, only a handful can be fine-tuned to suit your specific needs. This means that for most models, you’ll have to work with their out-of-the-box capabilities. However, fine-tuning is an option for a select few, allowing customization for your use case.

It’s important to grasp the significance of this distinction. When evaluating a model, you’re not measuring its performance across the board. Instead, you’re assessing whether it’s adept at your particular task. Each model type has its strengths; your choice depends on how well it aligns with your use case.

Evaluating Models: A Task-Oriented Approach

Evaluating a generative AI model entails a thorough understanding of its quality, robustness, and ethical considerations. Quality assessment involves examining the accuracy and relevance of the model’s output. However, as models grow more intricate, their behavior can become unpredictable, leading to results that might not always be trustworthy.

Evaluating generative AI models | LLM evaluation | large language models

Robustness, on the other hand, pertains to the model’s ability to handle varying inputs effectively. The presence of biases in AI models is a topic of concern. Bias can inadvertently seep into models due to the biased nature of human-generated data. Mitigating such biases and ethical concerns is a challenge that the AI community must tackle.

Navigating Benchmark Challenges

Benchmarks are a key tool for comparing models. However, one must tread cautiously. Benchmarks can be tricky, as models can excel on them without necessarily being versatile across different tasks. Moreover, certain benchmarks can lead to overfitting, where models excel solely because they’ve been designed around the benchmark data.

As AI practitioners, we should also consider the computational implications of deploying these models. Their resource-intensive nature can lead to environmental concerns and performance issues that impact user experience.

The Role of Benchmarking in Model Evaluation

Picture this: you’re in a bustling marketplace, and you’re trying to choose the juiciest apple among a variety of options. Similarly, when selecting an AI model, you need a reliable yardstick to measure its performance. That’s where benchmarks come in.

Benchmarks provide standardized evaluation tasks that allow different models to be tested on a level playing field. For example, benchmarks like ARC, HellaSwag, MMLU, and TruthfulQA assess models’ abilities across various domains.

However, it’s crucial to recognize that benchmarks have limitations. They might not cover all possible use cases, and some models could excel in certain benchmarks while falling short in real-world scenarios. One must be cautious not to solely rely on benchmarks when choosing a model. An AI model that performs well in benchmarking might not always be the best fit for your specific task.

Factors Beyond Benchmarks: Robustness, Trustworthiness, and Ethical Considerations

Imagine you have the juiciest apple, but it’s not sturdy enough to withstand transportation. Similarly, an AI model’s performance isn’t the only factor to consider. Robustness, trustworthiness, and ethical considerations are essential aspects that deserve attention.

Models can exhibit biases present in their training data, raising concerns about fairness and ethical use. A model that generates biased or inappropriate content can have real-world implications. Evaluating a model’s ethical implications involves understanding the biases it might have inherited and taking steps to mitigate their impact.

Operationalizing and Handling Model Changes in Production

Operationalizing a model is like ensuring that a juicy apple reaches you in perfect condition. AI models require deployment and maintenance, and operational challenges often arise. When a model is put into production, latency, performance, and the model’s ability to adapt over time become critical concerns. Ensuring that the model’s quality remains consistent even as it interacts with users’ queries is essential. An AI model that degrades over time might not deliver the experience users expect.

Emerging LLM App Stack | Handling model changes in production

The Art of Model Improvement: Prompt Engineering, Fine-Tuning, and Embedding

Think of model improvement as enhancing the apple’s flavor. There are three main avenues to make an AI model better suited for your use case:

1. Prompt Engineering: Crafting effective prompts is an art. How you frame your questions can influence the quality of the model’s responses. This strategy can work wonders, especially when you’re looking for quick wins.

Prompt engineering for evaluating generative AI models for NLP tasks

2. Fine-tuning: Imagine modifying the recipe to make the apple pie even better. Fine-tuning involves training a base model on specialized data to improve its performance on specific tasks. This process requires expertise and the right data, but it can yield impressive results.

Fine tuning of generative AI models for NLP tasks

3. Embedding: Like extracting the essence of an apple for a recipe, embedding involves creating a specialized representation of your data. This can lead to highly efficient and effective models, especially for search-based applications.

Embedding for evaluating generative AI models for NLP tasks

Conclusion

As we navigate the complex terrain of evaluating and selecting AI models, it becomes evident that there’s no one-size-fits-all approach. Benchmarks provide a starting point but should be supplemented with considerations of robustness, ethics, and operational feasibility. The road to model improvement involves techniques like prompt engineering, fine-tuning, and embedding. By combining these insights with real-world use cases, we can harness the power of AI while ensuring responsible and effective implementation.

Key Takeaways:

  • Benchmarks offer standardized tests for AI models, but they don’t capture all real-world scenarios. Consider broader factors when selecting a model.
  • Beyond performance, evaluate a model’s biases, fairness, and ethical implications. Ensuring responsible AI deployment is paramount.
  • Model deployment comes with operational hurdles such as latency and performance. Managing changes and ensuring consistent quality are critical.
  • Enhance models through prompt engineering, fine-tuning, and embedding. Each approach has its benefits, depending on your use case.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q1. What is the key factor to consider when evaluating generative AI models for NLP tasks?

Ans. When evaluating generative AI models for NLP tasks, the key factor to consider is whether the model aligns with your intended NLP task. It’s not about finding a model that does everything but rather the model that excels at your specific task. OpenAI, a leader in generative AI, can help suggest a suitable model based on your use case, allowing you to make an informed decision.

Q2. What are the primary types of generative AI models, and how do they differ in evaluation?

Ans. Generative AI models come in two primary types: foundation models and fine-tuned models. Foundation models are used out-of-the-box, while fine-tuned models can be customized for specific tasks. When evaluating these models, it’s important to assess their suitability for your particular task. Each model type has its strengths, and your choice should align with your use case.

Q3. How can I ensure responsible and effective implementation of generative AI models in production?

Ans. Operationalizing generative AI models in production is crucial for their effective use. To ensure responsible and consistent implementation, consider factors like latency, performance, and the model’s ability to adapt over time. Continuously monitor and manage changes to maintain quality. Additionally, you can enhance models through techniques like prompt engineering, fine-tuning, and embedding, depending on your specific use case, to optimize their performance in real-world scenarios.

About the Author: Rajeswaran Viswanathan

Rajeswaran Viswanathan (PhD), an eminent leader in Generative AI. With over 3 years as Capgemini’s Global GenAI leader, Rajeswaran shapes pioneering AI solutions as Head of AI CoE in India. As a Capgemini GenAI Portfolio Board Member, he drives innovation, also teaching GenAI courses to management, architects, and sales teams.

Rajeswaran’s qualifications include a Ph.D. in Computer Science (specializing in language models in healthcare), an MS from Texas A&M in Computer Engineering, and a management degree from IIM Kolkata. With 28+ years of experience, he masterfully manages diverse AI solutions employing machine learning, deep learning, and Generative AI.

A prolific LinkedIn blogger on GenAI, he shares insights that enrich the AI community’s understanding of this cutting-edge field.

DataHour Page: https://community.analyticsvidhya.com/c/datahour/datahour-evaluation-of-genai-models-and-search-use-case

LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/rajeswaran-v/

guest_blog 23 Oct 2023

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