Building LLM-Powered Applications with LangChain

Babina Banjara 22 Jan, 2024 • 13 min read

Welcome to the future of language processing! In a world where language is the bridge connecting people and technology, advancements in Natural Language Processing (NLP) have opened up incredible opportunities. Among these advancements is the revolutionary Language Model, known as the LLM (Large Language Model), which has completely transformed the way we interact with text-based data. We will explore the wonders of LLM and learn how to build LLM-powered applications using LangChain, an innovative platform that harnesses the full potential of LLM.

Language models have gained immense significance across various applications due to their ability to comprehend and generate human-like text. These models have revolutionized natural language processing tasks, including machine translation, sentiment analysis, chatbots, and content generation. They not only offer valuable insights but also improve communication and enhance user experiences. Join us as we dive into the world of LLM-powered applications and their limitless possibilities.

Learning Objectives

  • Understand the fundamentals of Language Models (LLMs) and their significance in building intelligent applications.
  • Learn how to integrate LangChain into application development workflows and utilize its APIs.
  • To gain insights on what can be done with Langchain.
  • To interact with various LLMs using Langchain.
  • Create a conversational chatbot using LLM.
  • To gain insights on what Finetuning LLM with langchain means.

This article was published as a part of the Data Science Blogathon.

What is LLM?

LLM, or Large Language Model, refers to a state-of-the-art language model, such as OpenAI’s GPT-3, that has been trained on a massive amount of text data. It utilizes deep learning techniques to understand and generate human-like text, making it a powerful tool for various applications, such as text completion, language translation, sentiment analysis, and much more. One of the most famous examples of an LLM is OpenAI’s GPT-3, which has garnered significant attention and acclaim for its language generation capabilities. This cutting-edge technology has paved the way for the development of llm-powered applications that leverage its advanced linguistic understanding for a wide range of tasks.

LLM-Powered Applications | Langchain

What is LangChain?

Imagine a world where your applications can comprehend and generate human-like text effortlessly. Welcome to LangChain, a trailblazing platform that opens the gateway to the enchanting realm of Language Models (LLMs). With LangChain you can seamlessly integrate LLMs into your projects, harnessing their extraordinary capabilities. Let’s embark on an exhilarating journey, exploring the captivating features and boundless possibilities that LangChain unveils.

LangChain is an advanced platform that provides developers with a seamless and intuitive interface to leverage the power of LLM in their applications. It offers a range of APIs and tools that simplify the integration of LLM into your projects, enabling you to unlock the full potential of language processing.

Features and Capabilities of LangChain

LangChain is packed with an array of features and capabilities that will leave you spellbound. From completing sentences to analyzing sentiments, from translating languages to recognizing named entities, LangChain equips you with the tools to work wonders with language. As you explore the API documentation, you’ll discover the secrets of how to use these features effectively, like a sorcerer mastering their spells.

Integrating LLMs into your Projects

Armed with the knowledge of LangChain’s features and capabilities, it’s time to weave the magic into your own projects. Using the LangChain SDK, you can seamlessly merge the extraordinary powers of LLMs with your existing codebase. With just a few lines of code, you’ll be able to summon the language processing abilities of LLMs, transforming your applications into intelligent beings that understand and generate human-like text.

Why Use LangChain?

With LangChain, the possibilities are as limitless as your imagination. Imagine chatbots that engage users in captivating conversations, providing them with helpful and witty responses. Picture e-commerce platforms that recommend products so accurately that customers can’t resist making a purchase. Imagine healthcare applications that offer personalized medical information, empowering patients to make informed decisions. The power to create these incredible experiences is within your grasp.

LLM-Powered Applications | Langchain

Setting up LangChain

To begin our journey with LangChain, we need to ensure proper installation and setup. You will also be provided instructions on importing the necessary libraries and dependencies required for working with LLMs effectively.

Importing Necessary Libraries

import langchain
import openai
import os
import IPython
from langchain.llms import OpenAI
from dotenv import load_dotenv
from langchain.chat_models import ChatOpenAI
from langchain.schema import (
    AIMessage,
    HumanMessage,
    SystemMessage
)
from langchain.embeddings import OpenAIEmbeddings
from langchain.chains import LLMChain
from langchain.chains import RetrievalQA
from langchain import ConversationChain

load_dotenv()
# API configuration
openai.api_key = os.getenv("OPENAI_API_KEY")

 Interacting with LLMs Using LangChain

Interacting with LLMs using LangChain involves a series of steps that allow you to leverage the power of pre-trained language models, such as GPT-3.5, for text generation and understanding tasks. LangChain provides a seamless environment to integrate llm-powered applications into your workflow. Here is a detailed explanation of each part, along with code implementations, to help you harness the capabilities of these advanced language models in your projects.

Initializing an LLM

To initialize an LLM in LangChain, you first need to import the necessary libraries and dependencies. For example, if you’re using the Python programming language, you can import the `langchain` library and specify the language model you want to use. Here’s an example:

from langchain import LangModel

# Specify the language model you want to use
model_name = 'gpt3'

# Initialize the LLM
llm = LangModel(model_name)

Inputting Prompts

Once you have initialized the LLM, you can input prompts to generate text or get responses. Prompts serve as the starting point for the language model to generate text. You can provide a single prompt or multiple prompts, depending on your requirements. Here’s an example:

# Input a single prompt
prompt = "Once upon a time"

# Generate text based on the prompt
generated_text = llm.generate_text(prompt)

Retrieving Generated Text or Responses

Once you have inputted the prompts, you can retrieve the generated text or responses from the LLM. The generated text or responses will be based on the context provided by the prompts and the capabilities of the language model. Here’s an example:

# Print the generated text
print(generated_text)

# Print the responses
for response in responses:
    print(response)

By following these steps and implementing the corresponding code, you can seamlessly interact with pre-trained LLMs using LangChain, harnessing their power for various text generation and understanding tasks.

What can be done with Langchain?

LangChain, with its diverse set of features, offers developers a wide range of possibilities to explore and leverage in their applications. Let’s dive into the key components of LangChain—models, prompts, chains, indexes, and memory and discover what can be accomplished with each.

Models

Numerous new LLMs are currently emerging. LangChain provides a streamlined interface and integrations for various models.

At the core of LangChain are powerful language models (LLMs) that enable applications to comprehend and generate human-like text. With LangChain, developers have access to an extensive collection of LLMs, each trained on vast amounts of data to excel at various language-related tasks. Whether it’s understanding user queries, generating responses, or performing complex language tasks, LangChain’s models act as the backbone of language processing capabilities.

from langchain.llms import OpenAI
llm = OpenAI(model_name="text-davinci-003")

# The LLM takes a prompt as an input and outputs a completion
prompt = "How many days are there in a month"
completion = llm(prompt)

Chat Model

This sets up a conversation between a user and an AI chatbot using the ChatOpenAI class. The chatbot is initialized with a temperature of 0, which makes its responses more focused and deterministic. The conversation starts with a system message stating the purpose of the bot, followed by a human message expressing a food preference. The chatbot will generate a response based on the given input.

chat = ChatOpenAI(temperature=0)

chat(
    [
        SystemMessage(content="You are a nice AI bot that helps a user figure out 
          what to eat in one short sentence"),
        HumanMessage(content="I like tomatoes, what should I eat?")
    ]
)

Text Embedding Model

Text input is received by text embedding models, which then output a list of embeddings that represent the input text numerically. Information can be extracted from text using embeddings. Later, this information can be applied, for example, to determine how similar two texts, such as movie summaries.

embeddings = OpenAIEmbeddings()

text = "Alice has a parrot. What animal is Alice's pet?"
text_embedding = embeddings.embed_query(text)

Prompts

Although adding prompts to LLMs in natural language should feel natural, you must make significant changes to the prompt before the desired result is obtained. This is called Prompt engineering

You might want to use your good prompt as a template for other things once you’ve got one. As a result, LangChain offers PromptTemplates, which enable you to build prompts out of various components.

template = "What is a good name for a company that makes {product}?"

prompt = PromptTemplate(
    input_variables=["product"],
    template=template,
)

prompt.format(product="colorful socks")

 Chains

The process of combining LLMs with other components to create an application is referred to as chaining in LangChain. Examples include:

  • Combining prompt templates and LLMs
  • By using the output of the first LLM as the input for the second, it is possible to combine multiple LLS in a sequential manner.
  • Combining LLMs with outside data, for example, to answer questions.
  • Combining LLMs with long-term memory, such as chat history.
chain = LLMChain(llm = llm, 
                  prompt = prompt)

chain.run("colorful socks")

Indexes

Lack of contextual information such as access to particular documents or emails is one drawback of LLMs. Giving LLMs access to the particular external data will help you avoid this.

Once the external data is prepared to be stored as documents, you can index it in a vector database called VectorStore using the text embedding model.

A vector store now stores your document as embeddings. With this external data, you can now take a number of actions.

LLM-Powered Applications | Langchain

Let’s use it for an information retriever-based question-answering task.

retriever = db.as_retriever()

qa = RetrievalQA.from_chain_type(
    llm=llm, 
    chain_type="stuff", 
    retriever=retriever, 
    return_source_documents=True)

query = "What am I never going to do?"
result = qa({"query": query})

print(result['result'])

Memory

It’s crucial for programs like chatbots to be able to recall previous conversations. However, unless you enter the chat history, LLMs by default lack any long-term memory.

By offering a number of options for handling chat history, LangChain addresses this issue by maintaining all dialogue, keeping up with the most recent K conversations, and summarizing what was said.

conversation = ConversationChain(llm=llm, verbose=True)
conversation.predict(input="Alice has a parrot.")
conversation.predict(input="Bob has two cats.")
conversation.predict(input="How many pets do Alice and Bob have?")

Building Conversational Chatbots

Conversational chatbots have become an integral part of many applications, offering seamless interaction and personalized experiences for users. The key to developing a successful chatbot lies in its ability to understand and generate human-like responses. With the advanced language processing capabilities of LangChain, you can create intelligent chatbots that surpass traditional rule-based systems.

building conversational chatbots | LLM-Powered Applications | Langchain

Import Necessary Libraries

from langchain.llms import OpenAI
from langchain import LLMChain
from langchain.prompts.prompt import PromptTemplate

# Chat specific components
from langchain.memory import ConversationBufferMemory

Using Prompt Template

This creates a chatbot template that generates jokes by taking the user’s input and incorporating it into a predefined joke format. It uses the PromptTemplate and ConversationBufferMemory to store and retrieve the chat history, enabling the chatbot to generate contextually relevant joke.

template = """
You are a helpful chatbot.
Your goal is to help the user make jokes.
Take what the user is saying and make a joke out of it

{chat_history}
Human: {human_input}
Chatbot:"""

prompt = PromptTemplate(
    input_variables=["chat_history", "human_input"], 
    template=template
)
memory = ConversationBufferMemory(memory_key="chat_history")

Chatbot

This sets up an instance of the LLMChain class, which utilizes the OpenAI language model to generate responses. The ‘llm_chain.predict()’ method is then used to generate a response based on the provided user input.

llm_chain = LLMChain(
    llm=OpenAI(temperature=0), 
    prompt=prompt, 
    verbose=True, 
    memory=memory
)
llm_chain.predict(human_input="Is an pear a fruit or vegetable?")

Finetuning an LLM with LangChain

Finetuning is a process where an existing pre-trained LLM is further trained on specific datasets to adapt it to a particular task or domain. By exposing the model to task-specific data, it learns to better understand the nuances, context, and intricacies of the target domain. This process enables developers to refine the model’s performance, improve accuracy, and make it more relevant to real-world applications.

Introducing LangChain’s Finetuning Capabilities

LangChain takes finetuning to new heights by providing developers with a comprehensive framework to train LLMs on custom datasets. It offers a user-friendly interface and a suite of tools that simplify the finetuning process. LangChain supports various popular LLM architectures, such as GPT-3, enabling developers to work with state-of-the-art models for their applications. With LangChain, the power to customize and optimize LLMs is at your fingertips.

Finetuning Workflow with LangChain

Dataset Preparation

To fine-tune an LLM, tailor your dataset to your specific task or domain. Start by collecting or curating a labeled dataset that aligns with your target application. This dataset should include input-output pairs or a suitable format for the fine-tuning process.

Configuring Parameters

In the LangChain interface, developers specify the desired LLM architecture, such as the number of layers, the size of the model, and other relevant parameters. These configurations define the architecture and capacity of the model to be trained, allowing developers to strike the right balance between performance and computational resources.

Training process

LangChain leverages distributed computing resources to train the LLM efficiently. Developers initiate the training process, and LangChain optimizes the training pipeline, ensuring efficient resource utilization and faster convergence. During training, the model learns from the provided dataset, adjusting its parameters to capture the nuances and patterns specific to the target task or domain.

Once you have the prepared dataset, you can begin the fine-tuning process with LangChain. First, import the necessary libraries and dependencies. Then, initialize the pre-trained LLM and fine-tune it on your custom dataset. Here’s an example:

from langchain import LangModel

# Initialize the pre-trained LLM
pre_trained_model = LangModel('gpt3')

# Load and preprocess your dataset
dataset = load_dataset('your_dataset.txt')
preprocessed_dataset = preprocess(dataset)

# Fine-tune the LLM on your dataset
fine_tuned_model = pre_trained_model.fine_tune(preprocessed_dataset, 
  num_epochs=5, batch_size=16)

In this example, we load the dataset, preprocess it to the required format, and then use the `fine_tune` method of LangModel to train the LLM on the preprocessed dataset. You can adjust parameters such as the number of training epochs and batch size according to your specific requirements.

Evaluation

After fine-tuning the LLM, it’s crucial to evaluate its performance. This step helps you assess how well the model has adapted to your specific task. You can evaluate the fine-tuned model using appropriate metrics and a separate test dataset. Here’s an example:

# Prepare the test dataset
test_dataset = load_dataset('your_test_dataset.txt')
preprocessed_test_dataset = preprocess(test_dataset)

# Evaluate the fine-tuned LLM
evaluation_results = fine_tuned_model.evaluate(preprocessed_test_dataset)

The evaluation results provide insights into the effectiveness of your fine-tuned LLM. You can measure metrics such as accuracy, precision, recall, or domain-specific metrics to assess the model’s performance.

By following these steps and implementing the provided code examples, you can effectively fine-tune a pre-trained LLM using LangChain. This process allows you to tailor the language model’s behavior, making it more suitable and relevant to your specific application requirements.

Benefits of Using LangChain

  • Finetuning LLMs with LangChain improves the model’s accuracy and contextual relevance for specific tasks or domains, resulting in higher-quality outputs.
  • LangChain allows developers to customize LLMs to handle unique tasks, industry-specific jargon, and domain-specific contexts, catering to specific user needs.
  • Finetuned LLMs enable the development of powerful applications with a deeper understanding of domain-specific language, leading to more accurate and contextually aware responses.
  • Finetuning with LangChain reduces the need for extensive training data and computational resources, saving time and effort while achieving significant performance improvements.

Real-World Use Cases and Success Stories

We will delve into real-world examples and success stories of LLM-powered applications to showcase the wide range of industries where LLMs and LangChain have made a significant impact. We will explore how these applications have transformed customer support, e-commerce, healthcare, and content generation, leading to improved user experiences and enhanced business outcomes.

Customer Support

LLM-powered chatbots have revolutionized customer support by providing instant and personalized assistance to users. Companies are leveraging LangChain to build chatbots that understand customer queries, provide relevant information, and even handle complex transactions. These chatbots can handle a large volume of inquiries, ensuring round-the-clock support while reducing wait times and improving customer satisfaction.

E-commerce

Use LLMs to enhance the shopping experience in the e-commerce industry. LangChain enables developers to build applications that can understand product descriptions, user preferences, and purchasing patterns. By leveraging LLM capabilities, e-commerce platforms can provide personalized product recommendations, answer customer queries, and even generate creative product descriptions, leading to increased sales and customer engagement.

Healthcare

LLM-powered applications are transforming the healthcare industry by improving patient care, diagnosis, and treatment processes. LangChain enables the development of intelligent virtual assistants that can understand medical queries, provide accurate information, and even assist in triaging patients based on symptoms. These applications facilitate faster access to healthcare information, reduce the burden on healthcare providers, and empower patients to make informed decisions about their health.

Content Generation

LLMs are valuable tools for content generation and creation. Let’s discover how and why:

  • LangChain empowers developers to build applications that generate creative and contextually relevant content, including blog articles, product descriptions, and social media posts.
  • These applications aid content creators by generating ideas, enhancing writing efficiency, and maintaining consistency in tone and style.
  • Real-world use cases demonstrate the versatility and impact of LLM-powered applications across various industries.
  • By harnessing LangChain’s capabilities, developers can create innovative solutions that streamline processes, enhance user experiences, and drive business growth.
  • Success stories from companies implementing LLM-powered applications highlight tangible benefits, such as significant reductions in support ticket resolution time and improved customer satisfaction scores for a customer support chatbot on a large e-commerce platform.
  • Additionally, a healthcare application using LLM capabilities improved triaging accuracy and reduced waiting times in emergency rooms, ultimately saving lives.

Conclusion

LangChain opens up a world of possibilities when it comes to building LLM-powered applications. If your interest lies in text completion, language translation, sentiment analysis, text summarization, or named entity recognition. LangChain provides an intuitive platform and powerful APIs to bring your ideas to life. By harnessing the capabilities of LLM, you can create intelligent applications that understand and generate human-like text, revolutionizing the way we interact with language.

Key takeaways

  • LangChain enables the development of applications that harness the remarkable capabilities of Language Models (LLMs) for understanding and generating human-like text.
  • With LangChain’s intuitive platform, developers can easily integrate LLMs into their projects by installing the LangChain SDK and authenticating with API credentials.
  • By incorporating LLMs through LangChain, developers can create applications that provide more natural and context-aware interactions with users, resulting in enhanced user experiences and improved engagement.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q1. What is LangChain?

A1. LangChain is a platform that provides tools and APIs for building applications powered by Language Models (LLMs). It simplifies the integration of LLMs into your projects, enabling you to leverage advanced language processing capabilities.

Q2. What are Language Models (LLMs)?

A2. Language Models (LLMs) are powerful machine learning models trained on vast amounts of text data. They can understand and generate human-like text, making them valuable for applications such as text completion, translation, sentiment analysis, and more.

Q3. Do I need expertise in machine learning to use LangChain?

A3. No, LangChain is designed to be accessible to developers of all levels, including beginners. While some understanding of natural language processing concepts can be helpful, LangChain’s user-friendly platform and documentation make it easier for developers without extensive machine learning expertise to build LLM-powered applications.

Q4. What programming languages can I use with LangChain?

A4. LangChain provides APIs that can be accessed using various programming languages, including Python, JavaScript, Java, and more. You can choose the language you are most comfortable with for integrating LangChain into your applications.

Q5. Can you enhance the performance of the language model with Langchain?

A5. Yes, by integrating LLMs through LangChain, you can enhance the performance of your language processing models. LLMs have advanced capabilities for understanding and generating text, which can complement and improve the accuracy and effectiveness of your existing models.

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Babina Banjara 22 Jan 2024

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