ChatGPT’s Code Interpreter: GPT-4 Advanced Data Analysis for Data Scientists

Gayathri Nadella 30 Nov, 2023 • 10 min read
ChatGPT’s Code Interpreter: GPT-4 Advanced Data Analysis for Data Scientists

Introduction

ChatGPT is a powerful language model developed by OpenAI that has taken the world by storm with its ability to understand and conversationally respond to human input. One of the most exciting features of ChatGPT is its ability to generate code snippets in various programming languages, including Python, Java, JavaScript, and C++. This feature has made ChatGPT a popular choice among developers who want to quickly prototype or solve a problem without having to write the entire codebase themselves. This article will explore how ChatGPT’s Code Interpreter for Advanced Data Analysis for Data Scientists. Further, we will look at how it works and can be used to generate machine learning code. We will also discuss some benefits and limitations of using ChatGPT.

Learning Objectives

  • Understand how ChatGPT’s Advanced Data Analysis works and how it can be used to generate machine learning code.
  • Learn how to use ChatGPT’s Advanced Data Analysis to generate code snippets for data scientists using Python.
  • Understand the benefits and limitations of ChatGPT’s Advanced Data Analysis for generating machine learning code.
  • Learn how to design and implement machine learning models using ChatGPT’s Advanced Data Analysis.
  • Understand how to preprocess data for machine learning, including handling missing values, ‘encoding categorical variables, normalizing data, and scaling numerical features.’encoding categorical variables, normalizing data, and scaling numerical features.
  • Learn how to split data into training and testing sets and evaluate the performance of machine learning models using metrics such as accuracy, precision, recall, F1 score, mean squared error, mean absolute error, R-squared value, etc.

By mastering these learning objectives, one should understand how to use ChatGPT’s Advanced Data Analysis to generate machine learning code and implement various machine learning algorithms. They should also be able to apply these skills to real-world problems and datasets, demonstrating their proficiency in using ChatGPT’s Advanced Data Analysis for machine learning tasks.

This article was published as a part of the Data Science Blogathon.

How Does ChatGPT’s Advanced Data Analysis Work?

ChatGPT’s Advanced Data Analysis is based on a deep learning model called a transformer, trained on a large corpus of text data. The transformer uses self-attention mechanisms to understand the context and relationship between different parts of the input text. When a user inputs a prompt or code snippet, ChatGPT’s model generates a response based on the patterns and structures it has learned from the training data.

The Advanced Data Analysis in ChatGPT can generate code snippets by leveraging the vast amount of online code. ChatGPT’s model can learn various programming languages’ syntax, semantics, and idioms by analyzing open-source repositories and other code sources. ChatGPT’s model can draw upon this knowledge when a user requests a piece of code to generate a relevant and working code snippet.

Generating Machine Learning Code with ChatGPT

Machine learning is one of the most promising applications of ChatGPT’s Advanced Data Analysis. With the rise of deep learning and machine learning applications, they have become increasingly important areas of research and development. However, designing and implementing these models can be complex and time-consuming, requiring expertise in linear algebra, calculus, probability theory, and computer science.

ChatGPT’s Advanced Data Analysis can help simplify this process by generating machine-learning code snippets that users can integrate into their projects. For example, a user can ask ChatGPT to generate a code snippet using a linear regression technique for predicting house prices in California based on a training dataset provided as input in .csv format. ChatGPT’s model can generate a code snippet that includes the necessary imports, data preprocessing steps, model architecture, and training procedures based on the user’s input.

Upload the dataset to the code interpreter in ChatGPT and enter the prompt below.

Prompt:

Perform linear regression using sklearn on the above dataset and show all steps with Python code. The prediction variable from the data is median_house_value.

 Prompt to Perform linear regression using sklearn.

Response:

 Response to the prompt to Perform linear regression using sklearn

The steps for linear regression using sklearn on the “housing.csv” dataset, using “median_house_value” as the target variable, are as follows:

  1. Data Exploration: Load the dataset and quickly examine its structure.
  2. Data Preprocessing: Handle missing values, encode categorical variables (if any), and scale numerical features.
  3. Splitting the data: Split the data into training and test sets.
  4. Model Training: Train a regression model on the training set.
  5. Evaluation: Evaluate the trained model on the test set.
  6. Model Interpretation: Analyze the importance of each feature in the prediction.

Loading the dataset and exploring its structure:

# Load the dataset
data = pd.read_csv('/mnt/data/housing.csv')

# Display the first few rows of the dataset to understand its structure
data.head()
#import csv
 Explore the data | Data Analysis for Data Scientists
Explore the data

The dataset contains the following columns:

  1. longitude: Longitude of the location
  2. latitude: Latitude of the location
  3. housing_median_age: Median age of the housing in the area
  4. total_rooms: Total number of rooms in the area
  5. total_bedrooms: Total number of bedrooms in the area
  6. population: Population of the area
  7. households: Number of households in the area
  8. median_income: Median income of the people in the area
  9. median_house_value: Median house value in the area (our target variable)
  10. ocean_proximity: Closeness to the ocean (categorical variable)

Next, let’s proceed with data preprocessing:

Data Preprocessing:

  1. Check for missing values and handle them.
  2. Encode the ocean_proximity categorical variable.
  3. Scale numerical features to standardize them.

Checking for missing values in the dataset:

# Check for missing values in each column
missing_values = data.isnull().sum()
missing_values
 missing values check | Data Analysis for Data Scientists

It looks like the total_bedrooms column has 207 missing values. A common strategy to handle missing values for numerical columns is to replace them with the median value of that column. Let’s fill in the missing values in total_bedrooms with its median value.

After that, we’ll encode the ocean_proximity categorical variable using one-hot encoding and scale the numerical features.

Preprocessing steps:

from sklearn.preprocessing import StandardScaler, OneHotEncoder
from sklearn.compose import ColumnTransformer
from sklearn.pipeline import Pipeline

# Fill missing values in total_bedrooms with its median value
data['total_bedrooms'].fillna(data['total_bedrooms'].median(), inplace=True)
# Define columns for preprocessing
numerical_features = ['longitude', 'latitude', 'housing_median_age', 'total_rooms', 
'total_bedrooms', 'population', 'households', 'median_income']
categorical_feature = ['ocean_proximity']

# Create a column transformer for preprocessing
preprocessor = ColumnTransformer(
    transformers=[
        ('num', StandardScaler(), numerical_features),
        ('cat', OneHotEncoder(), categorical_feature)
    ])

# Apply the transformations to the data (excluding the target variable)
X = data.drop('median_house_value', axis=1)
y = data['median_house_value']

X_transformed = preprocessor.fit_transform(X)

# Checking the transformed data's shape and first few rows to ensure preprocessing was successful
X_transformed.shape, X_transformed[:5]
 Data preprocessing | Data analysis for data scientists

The preprocessing steps were successful:

  1. Check for missing values and handle them.
  2. Encode the ocean_proximity categorical variable.
  3. Scale numerical features to standardize them.

The transformed dataset has 20,640 samples and 13 features.

Splitting the data:

Next, we’ll split the data into training and test sets. This allows us to train our model on one subset and
Test its performance on another unseen subset. Typically, a common split ratio is 80:20 or 70:30 for training and testing. For this exercise, we’ll use an 80:20 split.

Let’s split the data.

from sklearn.model_selection 
import train_test_split

# Splitting the data into training and test sets (80% training, 20% testing)
X_train, X_test, y_train, y_test = train_test_split(X_transformed, y, test_size=0.2, 
random_state=42)

X_train.shape, X_test.shape
 split the data

The data has been successfully divided into training and test sets:

  • Training set: 16,512 samples
  • Test set: 4,128 samples

Model Training:

Next, we’ll train a regression model using the training data. For this demonstration, we’ll use a simple
linear regression model. If needed, more complex models or ensemble methods can be explored later.

Train the linear regression model:

from sklearn.linear_model import LinearRegression
from sklearn.metrics import mean_squared_error

# Initialize the Linear Regression model
model = LinearRegression()

# Train the model on the training data
model.fit(X_train, y_train)

# Predict on the training data to check in-sample performance
train_predictions = model.predict(X_train)
train_mse = mean_squared_error(y_train, train_predictions)
train_rmse = train_mse**0.5

train_rmse
 Model Training

The root mean squared error (RMSE) for the predictions on the training data is approximately $68,433.94.

The RMSE gives us an idea of the average magnitude of the prediction errors. In this context, our model’s predictions are, on average, about $68,433.94 away from the actual house values in the training set.

Evaluation:

We’ll predict the test data and compute the RMSE for these predictions to evaluate the model’s generalization capability.

Let’s evaluate the model on the test set.

# Predict on the test data
test_predictions = model.predict(X_test)

# Compute the RMSE for the test predictions
test_mse = mean_squared_error(y_test, test_predictions)
test_rmse = test_mse**0.5

test_rmse
 Model evaluation

The root mean squared error (RMSE) for the predictions on the test data is approximately $70,060.52.

The test RMSE is slightly higher than the training RMSE, which is expected since the model was not trained on the test data. However, the values are relatively close, suggesting the model does not overfit the training data too much.

Model Interpretation:

To understand the model better, we can look at the coefficients for each feature. These coefficients indicate the importance and impact of each feature on the target variable, median_house_value.

Let’s take a look at the feature coefficients.

# Extract feature names after one-hot encoding
feature_names = numerical_features + list(preprocessor.named_transformers_['cat'].categories_[0])

# Retrieve the coefficients from the model
coefficients = model.coef_

# Create a DataFrame to display the feature coefficients
feature_importance = pd.DataFrame({
    'Feature': feature_names,
    'Coefficient': coefficients
}).sort_values(by='Coefficient', ascending=False)

feature_importance
 Model interpretation

Here are the interpretations of the feature coefficients:

  1. Positive coefficients indicate that as the feature value increases, the predicted median_house_value also increases.
  2. Negative coefficients indicate that as the feature value increases, the predicted median_house_value decreases.

For instance:

  • ISLAND has the highest positive coefficient, suggesting that houses on islands have a higher predicted value than other locations.
  • median_income also has a significant positive effect on the predicted house value.
  • On the other hand, INLAND has the most negative effect, indicating that houses located inland tend to have a lower predicted value.
  • Geographic features like longitude and latitude also play a role in determining house values, with both having negative coefficients in this model.

While these coefficients give insights into the relationships between features and the target variable, they don’t necessarily imply causation. External factors and interactions between features could also influence house values.

Benefits of Using ChatGPT for Machine Learning Code Generation

Benefits and Limitations of ChatGPT for Machine Learning Code Generation

There are several benefits to using ChatGPT’s Advanced Data Analysis for generating machine learning code:

  1. Time savings: Designing and implementing a machine learning model can take significant time, especially for beginners. ChatGPT’s Advanced data analysis can save users a lot of time by generating working code snippets that they can use as a starting point for their projects.
  2. Improved productivity: With ChatGPT’s Advanced data analysis, users can focus on the high-level concepts of their machine learning project, such as data preprocessing, feature engineering, and model evaluation, without getting bogged down in the details of implementing the model architecture.
  3. Accessibility: ChatGPT’s Advanced data analysis makes machine learning more accessible to people who may not have a strong background in computer science or programming. Users can describe their wants, and ChatGPT will generate the necessary code.
  4. Customization: ChatGPT’s Advanced data analysis allows users to customize the generated code to suit their needs. Users can modify the hyperparameters, adjust the model architecture, or add additional functionality to the code snippet.

Limitations of Using ChatGPT for Machine Learning Code Generation

While ChatGPT’s code interpreter is a powerful tool for generating machine-learning code, there are some limitations to consider:

  1. Quality of the generated code: While ChatGPT’s Advanced data analysis can generate working code snippets, the quality of the code may vary depending on the task’s complexity and the training data’s quality. Users may need to clean up the code, fix bugs, or optimize performance before using it in production.
  2. Lack of domain knowledge: ChatGPT’s model may not always understand the nuances of a particular domain or application area. Users may need to provide additional context or guidance to help ChatGPT generate code that meets their requirements.
  3. Dependence on training data: ChatGPT’s Advanced data analysis relies heavily on the quality and diversity of the training data to which it has been exposed. If the training data is biased or incomplete, the generated code may reflect those deficiencies.
  4. Ethical considerations: Ethical concerns exist around using AI-generated code in critical applications, such as healthcare or finance. Users must carefully evaluate the generated code and ensure it meets the required standards and regulations.

Conclusion

ChatGPT’s Advanced data analysis is a powerful tool for generating code snippets. With its ability to understand natural language prompts and generate working code, ChatGPT has the potential to democratize access to machine learning technology and accelerate innovation in the field. However, users must be aware of the limitations of the technology and carefully evaluate the generated code before using it in production. As the capabilities of ChatGPT continue to evolve, we can expect to see even more exciting applications of this technology.

Key Takeaways

  • ChatGPT’s Advanced data analysis is based on a deep learning model called a transformer, trained on a large corpus of text data.
  • Advanced data analysis can generate code snippets in various programming languages, including Python, Java, JavaScript, and C++, by leveraging the vast amount of online code.
  • ChatGPT’s Advanced data analysis can generate machine learning code snippets for linear regression, logistic regression, decision trees, random forest, support vector machines, neural networks, and deep learning.
  • To use ChatGPT’s Advanced data analysis for machine learning, users can provide a prompt or code snippet and request a specific task, such as generating a code snippet for a linear regression model using a particular dataset.
  • ChatGPT’s model can generate code snippets that include the necessary imports, data preprocessing steps, model architecture, and training procedures.
  • ChatGPT’s Advanced data analysis can help simplify designing and implementing machine learning models, making it easier for developers and data scientists to prototype or solve a problem quickly.
  • However, there are also limitations to using ChatGPT’s Advanced data analysis, such as the potential for generated code to contain errors or lack of customization options.
  • Overall, ChatGPT’s Advanced data analysis is a powerful tool that can help streamline the development process for developers and data scientists, especially when generating machine learning code snippets.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q1: How do I get started with using ChatGPT’s code interpreter?

A: Go to the ChatGPT website and start typing in your coding questions or prompts. The system will then respond based on its understanding of your query. You can also refer to tutorials and documentation online to help you get started.

Q2: What programming languages does ChatGPT’s code interpreter support?

A: ChatGPT’s code interpreter supports several popular programming languages, including Python, Java, JavaScript, and C++. It can also generate code snippets in other languages, although the quality of the output may vary depending on the complexity of the code and the availability of examples in the training data.

Q3: Can ChatGPT’s code interpreter handle complex coding tasks?

A: Yes, ChatGPT’s code interpreter can handle complex coding tasks, including machine learning algorithms, data analysis, and web development. However, the quality of the generated code may depend on the complexity of the task and the size of the training dataset available to the model.

Q4: Is the code generated by ChatGPT’s code interpreter free to use?

A: Yes, the code generated by ChatGPT’s code interpreter is free to use under the terms of the MIT License. This means you can modify, distribute, and use the code for commercial purposes without paying royalties or obtaining author permission.

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Gayathri Nadella 30 Nov 2023

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