Pranshu Sharma — April 21, 2021
Beginner Data Exploration Data Visualization Python Structured Data
This article was published as a part of the Data Science Blogathon.

Overview

  • Step by Step approach to Perform EDA
  • Resources Like Blogs, MOOCS for getting familiar with EDA
  • Getting familiar with various Data Visualization techniques, charts, plots
  • Demonstration of some steps with Python Code Snippet

 

What is that one thing that differentiates one data science professional, from the other?

Not Machine Learning, Not Deep Learning, Not SQL, It’s Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA). How good one is with the identification of hidden patterns/trends of the data and how valuable the extracted insights are, is what differentiates Data Professionals.

1. What Is Exploratory Data Analysis

Exploratory Data Analysis is an approach in analyzing data sets to summarize their main characteristics, often using statistical graphics and other data visualization methods.
EDA assists Data science professionals in various ways:-

1 Getting a better understanding of data
2 Identifying various data patterns
3 Getting a better understanding of the problem statement

[ Note: the dataset in this blog is being opted as iris dataset]

 

2. Checking Introductory Details About Data

The first and foremost step of any data analysis, after loading the data file, should be about checking few introductory details like, no. Of columns, no. of rows, types of features( categorical or Numerical), data types of column entries.

Python Code Snippet

data.info()

 <class ‘pandas.core.frame.DataFrame’>

RangeIndex: 150 entries, 0 to 149
Data columns (total 5 columns):
# Column Non-Null Count Dtype
— —— ————– —–
0 sepal_length 150 non-null float64
1 sepal_width 150 non-null float64
2 petal_length 150 non-null float64
3 petal_width 150 non-null float64
4 species 150 non-null object
dtypes: float64(4), object(1)
memory usage: 6.0+ KB

data.head()              For displaying first five rows

 

Exploratory Data Analysis data head

data.tail()   For Displaying last Five Rows

tail

 

3. Statistical Insight

This step should be performed for getting details about various statistical data like Mean, Standard Deviation, Median, Max Value, Min Value

Python Code Snippet

data.describe() 

 

Exploratory Data Analysis data describe

 

 

 

4. Data cleaning

This is the most important step in EDA involving removing duplicate rows/columns, filling the void entries with values like mean/median of the data, dropping various values, removing null entries

Checking Null entries

Python Code Snippet

data.IsNull().sum   gives the number of missing values for each variable

 

Exploratory Data Analysis cleaning

Removing Null Entries

Python Code Snippet

data.dropna(axis=0,inplace=True)     If null entries are there

Filling values in place of Null Entries(If Numerical feature)

Values can either be mean, median or any integer

Python Code Snippet

data[“sepal_length”].fillna(value=data[“sepal_length”].mean(), inplace = True)     if there’s a null entry

Checking Duplicates

Python Code Snippet

data.duplicated().sum()  returning total number of duplicates entries

Removing Duplicates

Python Code Snippet

data.drop_duplicates(inplace=True)

 

5. Data Visualization

Data visualization is the method of converting raw data into a visual form, such as a map or graph, to make data easier for us to understand and extract useful insights.

The main goal of data visualization is to put large datasets into a visual representation. It is one of the important steps and simple steps when it comes to data science

You Can refer to the blog below for getting more details about Data Visualization

Various Types of Visualization analysis is:

a. Uni Variate analysis:

This shows every observation/distribution in data on a single data variable. It can be shown with the help of various plots like Scatter Plot, Line plot,  Histogram(summary)plot, box plots, violin plot, etc.

b. Bi-Variate analysis:

Bivariate analysis displays are done to reveal the relationship between two data variables. It can also be shown with the help of Scatter plots, histograms, Heat Maps, Box Plots, Violin Plots, etc.

c. Multi-Variate analysis:

Multivariate analysis, as the name suggests,  displays are done to reveal the relationship between more than two data variables.

Scatterplots, Histograms, box plots, violin plots can be used for Multivariate Analysis

Various Plots

Below are some of the plots that can be deployed for Univariate, Bivariate, Multivariate analysis

a. Scatter Plot

Python Code Snippet

plt.figure(figsize=(17,9))
plt.title(‘Comparison between various species based on sapel length and width’)
sns.scatterplot(data[‘sepal_length’],data[‘sepal_width’],hue =data[‘species’],s=50)

Exploratory Data Analysis Scatter plot

For multivariate analysis

Python Code Snippet

sns.pairplot(data,hue=”species”,height=4)

Exploratory Data Analysis pairplot

b. Box Plot

Boxplot to see how the categorical feature “Species” is distributed with all other four input variables

Python Code Snippet

fig, axes = plt.subplots(2, 2, figsize=(16,9))
sns.boxplot( y=”petal_width”, x= “species”, data=iris_data, orient=’v’ , ax=axes[0, 0])
sns.boxplot( y=”petal_length”, x= “species”, data=iris_data, orient=’v’ , ax=axes[0, 1])
sns.boxplot( y=”sepal_length”, x= “species”, data=iris_data, orient=’v’ , ax=axes[1, 0])
sns.boxplot( y=”sepal_width”, x= “species”, data=iris_data, orient=’v’ , ax=axes[1, 1])
plt.show()

 

Box Plot

 

c. Violin Plot

More informative, than box plot, and shows full distribution of data

Python Code Snippet

fig, axes = plt.subplots(2, 2, figsize=(16,10))
sns.violinplot( y=”petal_width”, x= “species”, data=iris_data, orient=’v’ , ax=axes[0, 0],inner=’quartile’)
sns.violinplot( y=”petal_length”, x= “species”, data=iris_data, orient=’v’ , ax=axes[0, 1],inner=’quartile’)
sns.violinplot( y=”sepal_length”, x= “species”, data=iris_data, orient=’v’ , ax=axes[1, 0],inner=’quartile’)
sns.violinplot( y=”sepal_width”, x= “species”, data=iris_data, orient=’v’ , ax=axes[1, 1],inner=’quartile’)
plt.show()

violin plot

 

d. Histograms

It can be used for visualizing the Probability density function(PDF)

Python Code Snippet

sns.FacetGrid(iris_data, hue=”species”, height=5)
.map(sns.distplot, “petal_width”)
.add_legend();

Histograms

 

With this I finish this blog.
Hello Everyone, Namaste
My name is Pranshu Sharma and I am a Data Science Enthusiast
Thank you so much for taking your precious time to read this blog. Feel free to point out any mistake(I’m a learner after all) and provide respective feedback or leave a comment.
Dhanyvaad!!
Feedback:
Email: [email protected]

You can refer to the blog being, mentioned below for getting familiar with Exploratory Data Analysis

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