26 Prompting Principles to Improve LLM Performance

Nitika Sharma 10 Apr, 2024
7 min read


Prompting plays a crucial role in enhancing the performance of Large Language Models. By providing specific instructions and context, prompts guide LLMs to generate more accurate and relevant responses. In this comprehensive guide, we will explore the importance of prompt engineering and delve into 26 prompting principles that can significantly improve LLM performance.

How can Prompts Enhance LLM Performance?

Prompt engineering involves designing prompts that effectively guide LLMs to produce desired outputs. It requires careful consideration of various factors, including task objectives, target audience, context, and domain-specific knowledge. By employing prompt engineering techniques, we can optimize LLM performance and achieve more accurate and reliable results.

Prompts serve as the input to LLMs, providing them with the necessary information to generate responses. Well-crafted prompts can significantly improve LLM performance by guiding them to produce outputs that align with the desired objectives. By leveraging prompt engineering techniques, we can enhance the capabilities of LLMs and achieve better results in various applications.

Also Read: Beginners’ Guide to Finetuning Large Language Models (LLMs)

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Key Considerations for Effective Prompt Engineering

To maximize the effectiveness of prompt engineering, it is essential to consider the following key principles:

Principle 1: Define Clear Objectives and Desired Outputs

Before formulating prompts, it is crucial to define clear objectives and specify the desired outputs. By clearly articulating the task requirements, we can guide LLMs to generate responses that meet our expectations.

Principle 2: Tailor Prompts to Specific Tasks and Domains

Different tasks and domains require tailored prompts to achieve optimal results. By customizing prompts to the specific task at hand, we can provide LLMs with the necessary context and improve their understanding of the desired output.

Principle 3: Utilize Contextual Information in Prompts

Contextual information plays a vital role in prompt engineering. By incorporating relevant context, such as keywords, domain-specific terminology, or situational descriptions, we can anchor the model’s responses in the correct context and enhance the quality of generated outputs.

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Principle 4: Incorporate Domain-Specific Knowledge

Domain-specific knowledge is crucial for prompt engineering. By leveraging domain expertise and incorporating relevant knowledge into prompts, we can guide LLMs to generate responses that align with the specific domain requirements.

Principle 5: Experiment with Different Prompt Formats

Exploring different prompt formats can help identify the most effective approach for a given task. By experimenting with variations in prompt structure, wording, and formatting, we can optimize LLM performance and achieve better results.

Principle 6: Optimize Prompt Length and Complexity

The length and complexity of prompts can impact LLM performance. It is important to strike a balance between providing sufficient information and avoiding overwhelming the model. By optimizing prompt length and complexity, we can improve the model’s understanding and generate more accurate responses.

Principle 7: Balance Generality and Specificity in Prompts

Prompts should strike a balance between generality and specificity. While specific prompts provide clear instructions, general prompts allow for more creative and diverse responses. By finding the right balance, we can achieve the desired output while allowing room for flexibility and innovation.

Principle 8: Consider the Target Audience and User Experience

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Understanding the target audience is crucial for prompt engineering. By tailoring prompts to the intended audience, we can ensure that the generated responses are relevant and meaningful. Additionally, considering the user experience can help create prompts that are intuitive and user-friendly.

Principle 9: Leverage Pretrained Models and Transfer Learning

Pre-trained models and transfer learning can be powerful tools in prompt engineering. By leveraging the knowledge and capabilities of pre-trained models, we can enhance LLM performance and achieve better results with minimal additional training.

Principle 10: Fine-Tune Prompts for Improved Performance

Fine-tuning prompts based on initial outputs and model behaviors is essential for improving LLM performance. By iteratively refining prompts and incorporating human feedback, we can optimize the model’s responses and achieve better results.

Principle 11: Regularly Evaluate and Refine Prompts

Prompt evaluation and refinement are ongoing processes in prompt engineering. By regularly assessing the effectiveness of prompts and incorporating user feedback, we can continuously improve LLM performance and ensure the generation of high-quality outputs.

Principle 12: Address Bias and Fairness in Prompting

Prompt engineering should address bias and promote fairness in LLM outputs. By designing prompts that minimize bias and avoid reliance on stereotypes, we can ensure that the generated responses are unbiased and inclusive.

Principle 13: Mitigate Ethical Concerns in Prompt Engineering

Ethical considerations are paramount in prompt engineering. By being mindful of potential ethical implications and incorporating safeguards, we can mitigate concerns related to privacy, data protection, and the responsible use of LLMs.

Principle 14: Collaborate and Share Insights with the Community

Collaboration and knowledge sharing are essential in prompt engineering. By collaborating with fellow researchers and practitioners, we can exchange insights, learn from each other’s experiences, and collectively advance the field of prompt engineering.

Principle 15: Document and Replicate Prompting Strategies

Documenting and replicating prompting strategies is crucial for reproducibility and knowledge dissemination. By documenting successful prompting approaches and sharing them with the community, we can facilitate the adoption of effective prompt engineering techniques.

Principle 16: Monitor and Adapt to Model Updates and Changes

LLMs are constantly evolving, and prompt engineering strategies should adapt accordingly. By monitoring model updates and changes, we can ensure that our prompts remain effective and continue to yield optimal results.

Principle 17: Continuously Learn and Improve Prompting Techniques

Prompt engineering is an iterative process that requires continuous learning and improvement. By staying updated with the latest research and developments, we can refine our prompting techniques and stay at the forefront of the field.

Principle 18: Incorporate User Feedback and Iterative Design

User feedback is invaluable in prompt engineering. By incorporating user feedback and iteratively designing prompts based on user preferences, we can create prompts that align with user expectations and enhance the overall user experience.

Principle 19: Consider Multilingual and Multimodal Prompting

To cater to a diverse audience, it is essential to consider multilingual and multimodal prompting. By incorporating prompts in different languages and utilizing various modes of communication, such as text, images, and videos, we can enhance the LLM’s ability to understand and respond effectively. For example, when seeking clarification on a complex topic, we can provide a prompt like, “Explain [specific topic] using both text and relevant images.”

Principle 20: Address Challenges in Low-Resource Settings

In low-resource settings, where data availability is limited, prompt engineering becomes even more critical. To overcome this challenge, we can leverage transfer learning techniques and pretrain LLMs on related tasks or domains with more abundant data. By fine-tuning these models on the target task, we can improve their performance in low-resource settings.

Principle 21: Ensure Privacy and Data Protection in Prompting


Privacy and data protection are paramount when working with LLMs. It is crucial to handle sensitive information carefully and ensure that prompts do not compromise user privacy. By anonymizing data and following best practices for data handling, we can maintain the trust of users and protect their personal information.

Principle 22: Optimize Prompting for Real-Time Applications

Real-time applications require prompt engineering strategies that prioritize speed and efficiency. To optimize prompting for such applications, we can design prompts that are concise and specific, avoiding unnecessary information that may slow down the LLM’s response time. Additionally, leveraging techniques like caching and parallel processing can further enhance the real-time performance of LLMs.

Principle 23: Explore Novel Prompting Approaches and Paradigms

Prompt engineering is an evolving field, and it is essential to explore novel approaches and paradigms. Researchers and practitioners should continuously experiment with new techniques, such as reinforcement learning-based prompting or interactive prompting, to push the boundaries of LLM performance. By embracing innovation, we can unlock new possibilities and improve the overall effectiveness of prompt engineering.

Principle 24: Understand the Limitations and Risks of Prompting

While prompt engineering can significantly enhance LLM performance, it is crucial to understand its limitations and associated risks. LLMs may exhibit biases or generate inaccurate responses if prompts are not carefully designed. By conducting thorough evaluations and incorporating fairness and bias mitigation techniques, we can mitigate these risks and ensure the reliability of LLM-generated content.

Principle 25: Stay Updated with Latest Research and Developments

The field of prompt engineering is constantly evolving, with new research and developments emerging regularly. To stay at the forefront of this field, it is essential to stay updated with the latest research papers, blog posts, and industry advancements. By actively engaging with the prompt engineering community, we can learn from others’ experiences and incorporate cutting-edge techniques into our practices.

Principle 26: Foster Collaboration between Researchers and Practitioners

Collaboration between researchers and practitioners is crucial for advancing prompt engineering. By fostering an environment of knowledge sharing and collaboration, we can collectively tackle challenges, share best practices, and drive innovation in the field. Researchers can benefit from practitioners’ real-world insights, while practitioners can leverage the latest research findings to improve their prompt engineering strategies.


In this comprehensive guide, we have explored 26 prompting principles that can significantly improve LLM performance. From considering multilingual and multimodal prompting to addressing challenges in low-resource settings, these principles provide a roadmap for effective prompt engineering. By following these principles and staying updated with the latest research and developments, we can unlock the full potential of LLMs and harness their power to generate high-quality responses.

As prompt engineering continues to evolve, it is crucial to foster collaboration between researchers and practitioners to drive innovation and push the boundaries of what LLMs can achieve.

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Nitika Sharma 10 Apr, 2024

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