A Guide to Python HashMaps

Yana Khare 07 Jun, 2024
6 min read


In computer science, hashmaps are a crucial type of data structure. They implement an associative array that associates values with keys. HashMaps effectively computes an index into an array of buckets or slots containing the required information by utilizing a hash function. This results in highly efficient insertion, retrieval, and deletion processes. This article will examine the uses, benefits, drawbacks, applications, and best practices of Python HashMaps.


  • Learn about what Python HashMaps are and their key functions.
  • Discover the advantages and disadvantages of Python HashMaps.
  • Explore the various applications of Python Hash Maps such as caching and indexing data and more.
  • Learn best practices for using Python HashMaps and avoid common mistakes.
A Guide to Python HashMaps

What are Hashmaps?

A HashMap is a data structure that implements an associative array that can map keys to values. It uses a hash function to compute an index into an array of buckets or slots from which the desired value can be found.

Functions of Hashmap

  • Insertion (put method): This method adds a key-value pair to the map. If the key already exists, its value is updated.
  • Retrieval (get method): This method returns the value associated with a given key. If the key does not exist, it may return null or a special value.
  • Deletion (remove method): Removes the key-value pair for a given key.
  • Containment (containsKey and containsValue methods): This method checks whether a specific key or value is present in the map.
  • Size (size method): Returns the number of key-value pairs in the map.
  • Empty check (isEmpty method): Checks if the map is empty.
  • Iteration: Allows traversal through keys, values, or key-value pairs.


  • Fast Access: HashMaps offer average-case constant time complexity, O(1)O(1), for insertion, deletion, and retrieval operations.
  • Efficient Memory Usage: Only the required buckets and slots are used, making them relatively memory efficient.
  • Dynamic Sizing: HashMaps can dynamically resize themselves to maintain performance as more entries are added.
  • No Order Constraints: HashMaps do not maintain any order for their elements, allowing for faster operations than ordered structures.


  • Potential Collisions: HashMaps uses a good hash function to distribute keys uniformly. Poor hash functions can lead to collisions, resulting in performance degradation.
  • Memory Overhead: While efficient in memory usage, the underlying array and linked lists or trees used for collisions can consume significant memory.
  • Non-deterministic Order: HashMaps do not maintain any order for their elements, which might not be suitable for applications requiring ordered data.
  • Complexity in Resizing: When a HashMap exceeds its load factor, it needs to resize itself, which can be expensive.
  • No Support for Primitive Data Types: In languages like Java, Hash Maps cannot directly use primitive data types as keys or values without boxing/unboxing, which can add overhead.

Application of HashMap

HashMaps are widely used for their efficiency and versatility. Some common applications include:

  • Caching and Memoization: Storing previously computed results to speed up future computations.
  • Indexing Data: Access data using keys, such as user IDs or product codes.
  • Counting Frequencies: Counting occurrences of items, like words in a text or votes in an election.
  • Grouping Data: Grouping elements by a common attribute, such as categorizing items by type.
  • Implementing Sets: Creating a set-like structure where only unique elements are stored.
  • Database Indexes: Efficiently accessing records in databases using hashed keys.
  • Configuration Management: Storing configuration settings for applications, where settings are accessed using keys.
  • Symbol Tables: In compilers and interpreters, variable names and their associated values or memory locations are stored.

Python Implementation in HashMaps

You can understand the inner workings of hash-based data structures by creating your own Hash Map in Python. A rudimentary implementation includes essential features like insertion, retrieval, deletion, and resizing. This approach uses open addressing for both dynamic scaling and collision resolution.

class HashMap:
def __init__(self, initial_capacity=8, load_factor=0.75):
self.capacity = initial_capacity
self.load_factor = load_factor
self.size = 0
self.buckets = [None] * self.capacity

def _hash(self, key):
return hash(key) % self.capacity

def _resize(self):
old_buckets = self.buckets
self.capacity *= 2
self.buckets = [None] * self.capacity
self.size = 0
for bucket in old_buckets:
if bucket is not None:
for key, value in bucket:
self.put(key, value)

def put(self, key, value):
if self.size / self.capacity >= self.load_factor:

index = self._hash(key)
if self.buckets[index] is None:
self.buckets[index] = []
for i, (k, v) in enumerate(self.buckets[index]):
if k == key:
self.buckets[index][i] = (key, value)

self.buckets[index].append((key, value))
self.size += 1

def get(self, key):
index = self._hash(key)
if self.buckets[index] is not None:
for k, v in self.buckets[index]:
if k == key:
return v
return None

def remove(self, key):
index = self._hash(key)
if self.buckets[index] is not None:
for i, (k, v) in enumerate(self.buckets[index]):
if k == key:
self.size -= 1
return True
return False

def contains_key(self, key):
return self.get(key) is not None

def __len__(self):
return self.size

def __str__(self):
items = []
for bucket in self.buckets:
if bucket is not None:
return str(dict(items))

# Example usage
hash_map = HashMap()
hash_map.put("apple", 1)
hash_map.put("banana", 2)
hash_map.put("orange", 3)

print(hash_map.get("apple")) # Output: 1
print(hash_map.get("banana")) # Output: 2
print(hash_map.get("orange")) # Output: 3

print(hash_map.get("banana")) # Output: None

print(hash_map.contains_key("apple")) # Output: True
print(hash_map.contains_key("banana")) # Output: False

print(len(hash_map)) # Output: 2
print(hash_map) # Output: {'apple': 1, 'orange': 3}

Best Practices When Using HashMaps

  1. Use a Good Hash Function: Ensure your keys have a good distribution to minimize collisions. Hash functions for strings and integers integrated into most programming languages are often well-efficient.
  2. Choose an Appropriate Load Factor: The load factor, or the ratio of components to capacity, impacts performance. 0.75 is a typical baseline load factor that balances space and time complexity.
  3. Initialize with an Appropriate Capacity: If you know the number of elements in advance, initialize the HashMap with an appropriate capacity to avoid resizing overhead.
  4. Immutable Keys: Use immutable keys to prevent problems when altering the value of a key, which modifies the hash code and results in improper behavior.
  5. Handle Collisions Gracefully: Recognize how your Hash Map manages collisions (such as open addressing or chaining) and ensure your keyspace reduces the chance of clashes.
  6. Avoid Using Complex Objects as Keys: Use basic, unchangeable items, such as strings and integers, as keys. Ensure proper overriding of the equals and hashCode (or equivalent) methods for complex objects if necessary.
  7. Cleanup Unused Entries: For long-lived Hash Maps, remove no longer needed entries to avoid memory leaks.
  8. Iterate Efficiently: Use efficient iteration methods the HashMap provides, such as entry set iteration for key-value pairs.

Also Read: Ways to Calculate Hashing in Data Structure

Common Mistakes When Using HashMaps

  1. Poor Hash Function: Using a hash function that causes many collisions, leading to degraded performance.
  2. Modifying Keys: Changing a key after it has been inserted can result in losing access to the corresponding value.
  3. Ignoring equals and hashCode Contract: Not properly implementing equals and hashCode for custom key objects in Java, leading to inconsistent behavior.
  4. Incorrect Use of Mutable Objects: Using mutable objects as keys can lead to unpredictable results if the object state changes.
  5. Neglecting Load Factor: Ignoring the load factor and initial capacity can cause excessive resizing and performance hits.
  6. Ignoring Null Keys and Values: This means not considering how the HashMap handles null keys and values. For example, Java’s HashMap allows one null key but multiple null values, while Python’s dictionary allows neither.
  7. Concurrency Issues: Using regular HashMap in a multithreaded environment without proper synchronization leads to race conditions and data corruption.

Also Read: Comprehensive Guide on Python hash() Method


HashMaps are powerful tools for managing high-efficiency key-value pairs. Python HashMaps offer constant complexity for most operations under typical conditions. Their versatility makes them suitable for various applications, from caching and indexing data to counting frequencies and implementing sets. Whether using built-in HashMaps or implementing your own, understanding their inner workings will enable you to develop more efficient and effective software solutions.

You can also enroll in our free Python course today!

Frequently Asked Questions

Q1. Are HashMap and HashTable the same in Python?

A. In Python, HashMap and HashTable are not the same. While both data structures store key-value pairs, HashMap is typically called a dictionary (dict). In contrast, HashTable implements a HashTable provided in other languages, such as Java.

Q2. What are Hashmaps used for?

A. Hash Maps are used for efficient data storage and retrieval. They provide a way to map keys to values, allowing quick access to values based on their corresponding keys. Various applications commonly use Hash Maps, including databases, caching systems, and associative arrays.

Q3. Why HashMap is better than Hashtable?

A. Hash Map is often considered better than Hashtable due to several reasons. HashMap allows null keys and values, is not synchronized (which can improve performance in single-threaded scenarios), and offers better iterators. Additionally, HashMap provides better flexibility and performance in most scenarios compared to Hashtable.

Q4. What is the difference between HashMap and HashSet in Python?

A. The main difference between HashMap and HashSet in Python is how they store elements. HashMap stores key-value pairs, where each key is unique. On the other hand, HashSet stores unique elements only, without associated values. Additionally, while HashMap provides efficient key-based retrieval, HashSet focuses on unique element membership checks.

Yana Khare 07 Jun, 2024

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